TAIPEI, TAIWAN, Dec.31, 2022 - In recent years, the gut microbiome has been highlighted in numerous journal papers such as Cell, Nature and Scientists. Studies have revealed that gut bacteria are highly related to many human diseases, such as inflammation, obesity, and cancer. The weight of these gut microbiota in our human body could be as much as 1 to 2 kg. Gut microbiota has become the latest puzzle to decode human diseases.
What is the Gut Microbiome
The gut microbiome consists of the trillions of microbes and their genetic material that lives in the gut. These microbes, consisting mostly of bacteria, are involved in functions critical to human health. These bacteria live in the digestive system and play a key role in digesting food, helping to absorb and synthesize nutrients. Gut microbiomes are involved in a variety of important processes outside of the gut, such as metabolism, body weight, immune regulation, brain function and mood.
Study Link Gut Microbiome to Type 1 Diabetes
Microbiome dysbiosis is a known feature of diabetes, but how microbial products influence insulin production is not well understood. A new study published in Cell Metabolism in October has linked a microbiome-derived protein to pancreatic functioning, revealing a potential role for gut microbiota in type 1 diabetes.
Study Link Gut Microbiome to Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s disease may start in the gut and spread to the brain. A new study published in the journal Nature Communications discusses the links between this condition that affects the brain and changes in the gut microbiome that may predate brain changes. The researchers investigated the role of the gut microbiome by conducting a large-scale study. The researchers found several striking findings. Not only did the results confirm that dysbiosis is frequent and significant in Parkinson's disease patients, but they also identified the species responsible for such dysbiosis.
Mouse Study Link Gut Microbiome to exercise motivation
Another research team considered gut microbiome contributions to exercise motivation and corresponding exercise-induced changes to the brain's neurochemistry. They discovered how reducing microbiome could affect exercise capacity in their experiments with 199 mice. Their findings indicate that the rewarding properties of exercise are influenced by gut-derived interoceptive circuits and provide a microbiome-dependent explanation for interindividual variability in exercise performance.
Gut Microbiome Studies Help Us to be Aware of What We Are Eating
These findings gave strong evidence that the gut microbiome plays an essential role in the human body by helping control digestion and benefiting the immune system, among many other aspects of health.
All of the studies suggest that creating a good gut microbiome environment can help people stay healthy. The good news is that unlike our genome, which is inherited and unchangeable, we can change our microbes by eating more vegetables and a diverse range of foods.
Future studies are likely to be more fruitful as better tools and analytical programs are evolved to examine the full range of data from such metagenomics research. This could help researchers in every area, from causation to biomarkers to disease progression to prevention or therapy.
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